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Obesity and health : Consequences, Reasons , Prevention and Management

Obesity can be defined as excessive or abnormal amount of body fat that might affect to person’s body health. However, a person with obesi...

Obesity can be defined as excessive or abnormal amount of body fat that might affect to person’s body health. However, a person with obesity differ not only in the amount of excess fat that they store, but also the distribution of that fat within the body. A BMI of 30 or more is now widely accepted as denoting obesity.

Researchers suggest that the Obesity is increasing rapidly in children as well as in adults around the world at an alarming rate in both developed and developing countries. this will lead to see more health consequences in future.

Here are few health consequences of obesity

– Cardiovascular disease.
– Diabetes.
– Hypertension.
– Certain type of Cancers.
– Gallstones.
– Stroke.
– Social bias and discrimination.
– Sleep apnea

Long term and short-term weight loss

Both long term and modest weight loss effect on health benefits

  • Reduce cholesterol level.
  • Reduce Blood pressure.
  • Increase lung function.
  • Improve sleep quality.
  • Decrease joint pain.
  • Reduce hypertension and cardiovascular risk.
  • Improvement in insulin sensitivity.
  • Improvements in quality of life (increase mental well-being).
Reasons for obesity happen

Simply, obesity occurs as a result of energy imbalance. It means you take in more energy than you burn. However, Obesity is not just overindulgence in highly palatable foods, or lack of physical activity.

Energy balance = energy intake – energy burn

* Positive balance indicates, you store more energy than you burn and negative balance indicate decrease in energy store.

There are several factors that cause to occur obesity.

– Dietary factors
High-fat, energy-dense diets
Eating disorders

– Sedentary Behavior
Low or decreasing level of activity affect energy expenditure, fat balance and finally effect  on obesity.
Ex – television viewing, working at computer

– Effect of modernization
Ex- Use car or personnel vehicle to travel short distance
Use of robots and computerization
Use of elevator and automatic doors
Living in urban residential area

– Education and less knowledge on health-related topics

– Consumed of more fast food and take-away foods.

– Genetic factors
Macronutrient related factors
Energy expenditure related factors
Hormonal related factors

– Sex
It is recognized that females have more tendency to use extra energy into fat storage while males use these extra energies for protein synthesis.

– Smoking
Smoking cause to increase metabolic rate and reduce food intake.

– Changes in social and environmental circumstances
Ex – Marriage, Child birth

Prevention and Management


Prevention and management of this kind of disease require combine support of several factors such as environmental, educational, economic, technical and legislative measures.

Increasing physical activity.
Physical activity is an important method to prevent weight gain.

Improving the quality of the diet.
We need to consider about dietary energy, density and nutrient

Promotion of healthy diet.
Promotion of fresh fruit and vegetables, low fat foods.

Monitor weight regularly to see the results.

Initiate health education programme at workplaces – allow some time to do exercise,

Promote consumer education.

Coordination of government responsible agencies and implement policies and procedures.

Increase health care services and access.

Improve the training of healthcare workers who are responsible for prevention and management of disease.

Source –

World Health Organization.Obesity and overweight 3 March 2020

World Health Organization.Obesity:prevention and managing the global epidemic PDF 2000

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